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India-Pakistan: 75 years of tensions

#IndiaPakistan #years #tensions

Born out of the bloody partition of Britain’s Raj 75 years ago, India and Pakistan are deeply concerned neighbors at odds over disputed territory of Kashmir.

Here are the key dates in the tense relations of the nuclear-armed rivals:

– 1947: Bloody Division –

Overnight, August 14-15, 1947, Lord Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India, brings down the curtain on two centuries of British rule. The Indian subcontinent is divided into a predominantly Hindu India and a predominantly Muslim Pakistan.

An ill-prepared division disrupts life, displacing some 15 million people and triggering a sectarian bloodshed that may kill more than a million people.

– 1949: Partition of Kashmir –

At the end of 1947, war broke out between the two neighbors over Kashmir, a predominantly Muslim region in the Himalayas.

A United Nations-sponsored, 770-kilometer (478-mile) Armistice Line in January 1949 becomes a de facto border dividing territory, now known as the Line of Control, heavily militarized on both sides.

About 37 percent of the territory is administered by Pakistan and 63 percent by India, both of which claim it in full.

– 1965-72: Second War –

Pakistan starts a war against India for control of Kashmir in August/September 1965. It ends inconclusively seven weeks later after a Soviet-brokered armistice.

– 1971: Bangladesh is born –

The neighbors wage a third war over Islamabad’s rule in what was then East Pakistan in 1971, with New Delhi supporting Bengali nationalists seeking independence for what would become Bangladesh in March 1971. Three million people die in the short war.

– 1974: Marking of nuclear territory –

India will detonate its first nuclear bomb in 1974, while Pakistan’s first public test will not take place until May 1998. India is conducting five tests this year and Pakistan six. As the sixth and seventh nuclear powers in the world, they are fueling concern and sanctions around the world.

– 1989-90: Rebellion –

In 1989, an uprising against New Delhi rule broke out in Kashmir, and thousands of militants and civilians were killed in the years that followed as fighting between security forces and Kashmiri militants raged in the region.

Widespread human rights abuses are being documented on both sides of the conflict as the insurgency spreads.

Thousands of Kashmiri Hindus have fled to other parts of India since 1990, fearing retaliatory attacks.

– 1999-2003: Kargil Conflict –

In 1999, Pakistan-backed fighters crossed the disputed border with Kashmir and seized Indian military posts in the frigid heights of the Kargil Mountains. Indian troops push back the invaders, ending the 10-week conflict that has claimed 1,000 lives on both sides.

The fight ends under pressure from the United States.

A series of attacks in 2001 and 2002 blamed by India on Pakistani militants prompted a renewed mobilization of troops on both sides.

A ceasefire is declared along the border in 2003, but a peace process launched the following year ends in vain.

– 2008-2016: attacks in Mumbai –

In November 2008, Islamist gunmen attacked the Indian city of Mumbai, killing 166 people. India blames Pakistani intelligence for the attack and suspends peace talks.

Contacts resumed in 2011, but the situation is marred by sporadic fighting.

Indian troops conduct cross-border raids on Separatist positions in Kashmir.

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi pays a surprise visit to Pakistan in December 2015.

– 2019-22: Raid –

India vows retaliation after 41 paramilitaries were killed in a 2019 suicide bombing in Kashmir claimed by a Pakistan-based militant group.

Air raids between the two nations bring them to the brink of war.

Later that year, India abruptly revoked Kashmir’s limited autonomy under the constitution, trapping thousands of political opponents on the territory.

Authorities impose the world’s longest internet shutdown and troops are being dispatched to bolster the estimated half a million security forces already stationed there.

Tens of thousands of people, mostly civilians, have been killed in the uprisings since the 1990s.

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